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Crankshaft, Main Bearings and Shaft Alignment ppt presentation
#1

LESSON TWO
Crankshaft, Main Bearings
and Shaft Alignment



The crankshaft, which converts the reciprocating motion of the piston to rotating motion, must resist the bending stresses caused by the connecting rod thrust when the piston is at top centre.
Then the maximum gas pressure acts straight down on the crankpin and tends to bend the shaft between the adjacent bearings. The crankshaft must also withstand the torsional forces produced by the change of speed.

Complete the sentences
The crankshaft converts ... ... to .... ....
It must resist the bending stresses caused by the connecting rod thrust when ... ... .
Then the maximum gas pressure acts straight down on the crankpin and tends to ... ....
The crankshaft must also withstand the ... ....

Lesson Two


Crankshaft, Main Bearings and Shaf Alignment

(text)



Medium speed engines have crankshaft usually solid forged, i.e. made from a single piece, while slow speed engine crankshafts are mostly of semi-built design with crankpins and webs forged or cast in one piece and shrunk on to the journals. The type of steel used, which is carbon or alloy steel containing nickel, chromium and molybdenum, is chosen for its strength, resistance to fatigue and hardness of bearing surface.


Medium speed engines have crankshaft usually solid forged, i.e. made ... ...,
Slow speed engine crankshafts are mostly of semi-built design with ... ...
They are ... or ... in one piece and ... on to the journals.
The type of steel used for crakshafts is ... ...
It contains nickel, ... and must be resistant to ... ....


The cranks of a multi-throw shaft are set at appropriate angles giving a “firing order” for the engine. The firing order is chosen primarily to obtain a smooth torque and the best mechanical balance. However, main bearings loads, exhaust arrangements suitable for turbocharging and torsional vibration may also be taken into account. Although the crankshaft appears to be robust, they rely on the main bearings to develop their full strength.


cranks of a multi-throw shaft are set at appropriate angles giving ... ...
The firing order is chosen primarily to obtain ... ... and ... ...
However, we must also take ito account:
... loads,
exhaust arrangements suitable for ... and
... ...
Crankshaft rely on the ... ... to develop their full strength.



When a crankshaft has to be handled outside the engine, it should be carefully supported to avoid high bending moments on it by its own weight. In the engine it is essential to ensure that the bearings carrying it are in good alignment, as bearing misalignment will cause the crankshaft to bend and eventually break it.

When a crankshaft has to be handled outside the engine, it should be carefully supported to _____ high bending moments on it by its own weight. In the engine it is essential to ensure that the bearings carrying it are in ______ alignment, as bearing misalignment will ______ the crankshaft to bend and eventually break it.


The main bearing shells are made of steel with a lining of bearing metal which can be white metal, copper-lead or aluminium-tin alloy. A thin flash of lead or indium is often added to provide a layer giving protection against corrosion. The shells are held in position and shape by seatings of the bedplate or frame.To ensure efficient and reliable operation the crankshaft should be checked periodically for alignment by measuring the deflection of the webs.


The main bearing shells are made ... steel with a lining ... bearing metal which can be white metal, copper-lead ... aluminium-tin alloy. A thin flash of lead or indium is often added ... provide a layer giving protection ... corrosion. The shells are held ... position and shape by seatings of the bedplate or frame. ... ensure efficient and reliable operation the crankshaft should be checked periodically ... alignment by measuring the deflection ... the webs.

QUESTIONS AND DISCUSSION
State the function of the crankshaft.
What forces is a crankshaft subjected to?
What kind of crankshafts arer used in: a) Medium speed diesel
Slow speed diesel
4. What does the choice of steel type for crankshaft depend on?
What is the “firing order”?
What else is taken into consideration in designing a crankshaft?
Why should special care be taken when handling crankshafts outside the engine?
How are the main bearing shells protected from corrosion?
How are crankshafts positioned in the engine with respect to their connection to the shaft?
What is a journal bearing? What other types of bearings do you know?
What is the function of the webs?
How are the main bearings examined for possible wear?
 


Test
CRANKSHAFT, MAIN BEARINGS AND SHAFT ALINGNMENT



The crankshaft, which converts the _________ motion of the piston to rotating motion, must resist the _________ stresses caused by the connecting rod _________ when the piston is at top centre.
Then the maximum gas pressure acts straight down on the _________ and tends to bend the shaft between the adjacent _________ . The crankshaft must also _________ the torsional forces produced by the change of speed.
Medium speed engines have crankshaft usually solid _________ , i.e. made from a single piece, while slow speed engine crankshafts are mostly of semi-built design with crankpins and _________ forged or cast in one piece and shrunk on to the _________ . The type of steel used, which is carbon or alloy steel containing nickel, chromium and molybdenum, is chosen for its strength, resistance to _________ and hardness of bearing surface.


.ppt   1451855719-crksft1.ppt (Size: 10.51 MB / Downloads: 0)
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