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Minimising Plastic Waste by embedding them into Building Brick Form
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Abstract: In this fast changing world towards sustainability, an approach towards green revolution is need of hour. People are spending money on new approaches to get better standards of living. Waste generally considered a bane is usually left unattended in spite of such awareness program, to recycle waste into a building material is substantially challenging. Getting out the product fulfils the dual advantage one is the new building material in the industry and secondly a step towards quantitative decrease in annual waste assimilation.


Introduction

Green building is the watch word of the industry these days, and many alternative building materials are eco-friendly or made of natural and renewable materials. Some green homes are also very energy efficient as well as green to build, so eco-conscious consumers can make good choices for their lifestyles by looking into some of these alternative building materials.
Green building has taken off in recent years with many architects, builders and new homeowners looking for new and different methods of construction that can potentially offset energy costs. Some alternative building materials can be made out of natural materials, while others can help to lower energy costs of the occupant once built. Regardless of what the goal of the builder is, alternative building materials and their use is on the rise. Many of these methods have already been in use in Europe for many years, while some are just starting to catch on everywhere.
In this world, the new trend of Sustainability, going green has become has become a top priority. Sustainable Buildings are being tried to achieve by 1.Passive and Active Energy System.
2. Reuse of recycled materials.
Plastic recycling is the process of recovering scrap or waste plastic and reprocessing the material into useful products, sometimes completely different.
2. Waste generation

A multitude of approaches and definitions can be discussed for waste generation.
This is what we hear when we have spent more time, money or energy than was really necessary. It is disturbing to realize that we use the same word to indicate materials that have been used but are no longer wanted, either because they don’t work or the valuable part has been removed. In both cases, the word “waste” is related to the way we behave in the context of the consumer society. In order for communities to function smoothly, people assume and accept the generation of a certain level of waste. A whole business has developed around waste management, in certain cases contrary to the preservation of the environment and natural resources, leaving little incentive to permanently reduce the volume of waste generated.

convention: Wastes are substances or objects which are disposed or are intended to be disposed or are required to be disposed of by the provisions of national laws.
The United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD): Wastes are materials that are not prime products (that is products produced for the market) for which the generator has no further use in terms of his/her own purposes of production, transformation or consumption, and of which he/she wants to dispose. Wastes may be generated during the extraction of raw materials, the processing of raw materials into intermediate and final products, the consumption of final products, and other human activities. Residuals recycled or reused at the place of generation are excluded.


Wet Waste
Any stuff arising from kitchen and going into trash is technically termed as Wet Waste. Wet waste, typically refers to organic waste usually generated by eating establishments and are heavy in weight due to dampness. It is a type of waste which can be broken down, in a reasonable amount of time, into its base compounds by micro-organisms and other living things, regardless of what those compounds may be. It includes Organic Disposal accepts the following wastes, Fruits and Vegetables, Meat, Poultry, Seafood, Egg shells, Rice, Beans, cheese, bones, Frozen refrigerated boxes, milk cartons, tea bags, coffee grounds, Cereals, Vegetable fecal matter.



involve any relation with water or dampness are collected in trash and disposed of time to time. It stays for a longer duration rather than organic wastes. It Includes glasses, wire, cloth, leather, paper, tire, thermacol, plastic, wood.

India generates 5.6 million metric tons of plastic waste annually, with Delhi generating the most of at municipality at 689.5 metric tons every day, according to a report from the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB). About 60 percent of the total — or 9,205 metric tons per day — is recycled.

Out of total waste generated annually in India, Plastic is found out to be a major contributor of waste in India. It is a major source of pollution and the threats are increasing every year manifold and the problem of composting plastic remains unresolved.
So we select our raw material as plastic and try to resolve out the major problem of society by converting them into building blocks.
One usually finds waste spread all over the suburbs of city waiting to be incinerated or land filled. The wastes choke our drains as well as pollute our soils, why not to find a method to make these waste products beneficial for living.


Plastic in general context
A simple definition could be
Any of a group of synthetic or natural organic materials that may be shaped when soft and then hardened, including many types of resins, resinoids, polymers, cellulose derivatives, casein materials, and proteins: used in place of other materials, as glass, wood, and metals, in construction and decoration, for making many articles, as coatings, and, drawn into filaments.
In chemistry, plastics are large molecules, called polymers, composed of repeated segments, called monomers, with carbon backbones. A polymer is simply a very large molecule made up of many smaller units joined together, generally end to end, to create a long chain. The smallest building block of a polymer is called a monomer. Polymers are divided into two distinct groups: thermoplastics (moldable) and thermosets (not). The word “plastics” generally applies to the synthetic products of chemistry.
4. Plastic as a waste material
Plastic bags make carrying everything easy with their light weight and ease of use. After use, just throw them and they are out of sight and mind. Easy, isn’t it?
But then, here are some issues for you to ponder about plastics: Do you remember the rains that drowned Mumbai in 2005? Plastics scattered and spread everywhere choked the drains of Mumbai city because of which entire city got flooded.
This mainly occurred because many rather a large no of residents did not bother where they threw their plastic bags and what impact it had caused.
Plastic is not biodegradable, so the plastic you throw will remain as it is for hundreds of years. It cannot breakdown its elements, to join nature- it will remain as it is. The food waste that you tie in a plastic and throw- ever wondered what happens to it? Animals try to tear it open and eat the inside food, and many a times eat plastic in process.
Mixed waste in landfill releases gases including ammonia and methane, thereby creating unbearable stench to people living near landfills- something that we saw in form of Mandur garbage crisis. Plastic is super thin(less than 40 microns for Karnataka) is not easy to recycle. People tend to throw it; as it is thin, it is likely to tear and become unusable. This is used generally to throw garbage by most people, and is bad for environment in many ways. Plastic bags release toxic fumes into air when burnt. The residual ash contaminates the environment. So-called the bio degradable bags are not actually bio-degradable, they are just degradable. They physically disintegrate and remain in nature as small plastic particle- they don’t break down into their elements such as carbon, hydrogen or water. Microbial degradation does not happen in this case. So if plastic possess such a threat, why not we try to make the best use of it.



Plastic in India
Production of plastics below 20 microns was banned in India in 2002. Later, Plastic Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 2011 was formulated, but the rules have not been enforced. Main reason, as Centre for Science and Environment puts it, several lawsuits filed by the manufacturers of plastics below 40 microns against these laws, which are still awaiting a final judgment. Different states have fixed different standards as minimum thickness for the plastic produced. In Kerala it is 30 microns, while in Himachal it is 70 microns. While in Bangalore and Karnataka, it is 40 microns. Well - now, did you know there is a day to spread awareness about plastics? July 3 is International Plastic Bag-free Day. Many organizations in the country have warmed up to the cause.
4.2 Range of Plastic Waste
Plastics waste forms a wide range. Predominantly it is film packaging and polythene carry bags, and broken and discarded moulded items. The range is wide and includes
1. Discarded PVC Footwear in varied colours and grades of plastic material.


2. Discarded PVC mineral water bottles/PET mineral water, ice cream cups, disposable catering plates and foam packaging.
3. These are even used in films, packaging, shopping bags and medicine foils and discarded moulded items like containers and range of household non-durables, combs, ballpoint pens, tooth brushes
Plastic the most common topic of discussion in environmental debate always stating it as a bane, but lacking in a susceptible steps that could lead to prevention of the environment at least to an extent.
4.3 Plastic at home
In general we are surrounded by plastic, ranging from a tooth paste tube to a shampoo bottle, everything has plastic involved in it. It is just like sweet poison adding its effect with time to time. Plastic as a waste can be categorised in two parts (on basis of daily use) 1. Plastic Bottles 2. Plastic Wrappers.
1. Plastic Bottles
These products somehow find their existence and people especially lower middle class people preserve it. Ex. Empty bottles of Shampoo, Cooking oil, hair oil are kept either to be refilled or to be resold to the junk or scrap dealer. These are usually classified under pet 1 after recycling.
2. Plastic Wrappers
These completely dry waste are of no use to house hold. These wrappers generally go in the land fill and cause serious problems. These possess threat for land, people, animals etc.
Plastic Wrappers a suitable raw material for recycled building material
• Plastic wrappers which are generally found here and there on streets of small cities and villages, hence abundantly available.
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